First aid – a set of simple medical interventions with drugs, performed a medical officer or a person with no medical training, but with the necessary skills in first aid on the spot of injury and / or the occurrence of any acute or exacerbation of chronic disease order self-help. The time from injury, poisoning and other accidents before receipt of first aid should be extremely reduced (“golden hour”) First Aid is on the site of the lesion, and its form is determined by the nature of the damage, the condition of the victim and the specific situation in the zone of emergency situation.
General rules of care:
-Provide Safety of yourself and those around the victim (for example, remove the victim from the burning car).
-Check The presence of the victim’s life signs (pulse, respiration, pupillary reaction to light) and consciousness. To check the breathing of the victim is necessary tilt the head back, leaning over his mouth and nose and try to hear or feel the breath; to “listen to” the pulse must be applied to the fingertips of the affected carotid artery; for the evaluation of consciousness is necessary (if possible) to take the victim’s shoulders, gently shake and ask any vopros.Dazhe if the victim is not breathing, the heartbeat can not be heard, there is no reaction to an injection needle and the reaction of the pupil to light is absent, it is necessary to assist in full volume.
-Okazat Emergency first aid. Depending on the situation, it can be:
-ostanovka bleeding and other activities.
-Provide Suffered physical and psychological comfort, await the arrival of specialists.
When providing first aid and the personnel used the means at hand. Personnel means first aid dressings are – bandages, dressings, medical bags, large and small, sterile bandages and wipes, cotton and other. To stop bleeding apply a tourniquet – tape and tube, and for immobilization (immobilization) special tires – plywood , stair, mesh and other. When the first aid use of some medications – iodine solution alcohol 5% in ampoules or vial 1-2% alcoholic solution of brilliant green vial, validol tablets, tincture of valerian, ammonia alcohol in ampoules, sodium bicarbonate (baking soda), in tablet or powder, etc. and vaseline.
First aid for bruises:
If bruised arm or leg, it must be lifted, tucked under her clothes folded roll.
For pain relief, you can give the victim 1-2 tablets analgin.
When bruised chest must place the victim in semi-sitting position, then apply a pressure bandage, put on the surface of the cold sore and give analgesics.
With injuries of the abdomen is necessary to pay special attention to the appearance of the victim and his physical condition. If there are increased heart rate when it is weak filling, pale skin, weakness, cold sweat, acute pain
the abdomen, nausea and even vomiting – can talk about internal bleeding.
In this case it is necessary to abandon the ingestion of any kind of liquid or food, including drugs. The victim must be put on the back, legs bent at the knees, put a chill on the stomach. Then, without delay, deliver to the nearest hospital.
FIRST AID IN TENSION:
Symptoms are sudden stretching pain in the joint, inability to step on the foot, severe swelling of the joint, extensive bruising.
First Aid – tight bandaging ankle or knee joint, with severe pain – immobilization means at hand.
First aid for fractures
First aid for fractures is to provide the injured limb immobility, analgesia and subsequent delivery to the hospital.
In order to ensure the immobility of the limb must be improvised (boards, plywood and so on. D.) To construct a bus.
The splint is applied to the outer or inner surface of the limb so that it captures two joints between which a fracture.
For the comfort of the victim between the tire and wheel must be placed any soft tissue. Then the tire is attached to the limb using a tight povyazki.Pri open fractures before splint, you must stop the bleeding using a tourniquet and apply antiseptic dressing.
First aid for bleeding
First aid for bleeding – the imposition of a pressure bandage, a finger pressed against the vessel, applying a tourniquet, fixing the limb at maximum flexion in the joint.
Arterial bleeding is the most dangerous.
The damaged vessel pressed against the bones of the skeleton above the wound.
Stop the bleeding tourniquet, squeezing the lumen of the injured vessel. Rubber band is stretched without loosening the tension is applied above the wound and as close to the pulse ney.Ischeznovenie below tourniquet it indicates that the artery is squeezed.
Tourniquet on a limb may remain no more than two chasov.Pri any bleeding, you have to put it higher, to reduce the flow of blood.
FIRST AID FOR BURNS
There are four degrees of burns: 1 degree – redness and swelling of the skin;
2 degree – damage to the superficial layers of the skin, the appearance of bubbles filled with liquid light – yellow;
3 degree – damage to the entire thickness of the skin to form a scab;
4 degree – damage to the skin, muscles and bones (charring).
In severe burns, 3rd and 4th degree should contact the hospital.
To assist the victim in the first place to eliminate the cause of the damage: to extinguish the fire or to release from boiling water soaked clothes. Damaged surface obrabotat.Esli necessary medicines is not at hand, it is possible to treat the damaged area with alcohol, vodka or eau de cologne, with a solution of potassium permanganate. Then burned surface to be imposed antiseptic dressing.
Then hide the victim with a blanket or extra clothes, and a sweet drink hot tea or coffee.
The pain can be removed with the help of analgesics.
FIRST AID DURING FREEZING
With a total freezing is necessary without delay to bring the victim in a heated room (or at least one where the temperature is above zero).
Then he should be freed from clothes and rub gently with alcohol or any alcohol-based solution (eg, cologne), then cover with a blanket or wrap in something warm. When the consciousness is restored, it is advisable to water the affected hot coffee, tea or chocolate.
In severe frost when the victim for a long time did not come to life, it is necessary to take measures to revive the (artificial respiration, heart massage). In order to avoid frostbite and freezing the total can not be a long time
in a fixed position, overwork, drink alcoholic beverages, as they dull the sensitivity and time of the initial hypothermia may pass unnoticed.
First aid for poisoning
Symptoms of poisoning include nausea, vomiting, malaise, loose stools.
In more severe forms of the listed symptoms of poisoning can be added cramping abdominal pain, chills and fever.
First aid for poisoning is gastric lavage.
The victim should be given to drink about 2 liters of soda solution
(1 tsp. Per cup of water) and induce vomiting.
Once the stomach is cleared, it is necessary to give him a weak solution of potassium permanganate and a saline laxative.